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    starlink

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    Starlink

    We usually invite the world to create the sum of all human knowledge. Now, we are inviting the world to create the sound of all human knowledge.

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    Starlink

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    This article is about the SpaceX satellite internet service. For other uses, see Starlink (disambiguation).

    Starlink

    60 Starlink satellites stacked together before deployment on 24 May 2019

    Manufacturer SpaceX

    Country of origin United States

    Operator SpaceX

    Applications Internet service

    Website starlink.com

    Specifications

    Spacecraft type Small satellite

    Launch mass

    v 0.9: 227 kg (500 lb)

    v 1.0: 260 kg (570 lb)

    v 1.5: ~295 kg (650 lb)[1]

    v 2.0: ~1,250 kg (2,760 lb)[2]

    Equipment

    Ku-, Ka-, and E-band phased array antennas

    Laser transponders (some units)

    Hall-effect thrusters

    Regime Low Earth orbit

    Sun-synchronous orbit

    Production Status Active

    Starlink is a satellite internet constellation operated by SpaceX,[3] providing satellite Internet access coverage to 40 countries. It also aims for global mobile phone service after 2023.[4] SpaceX started launching Starlink satellites in 2019. As of September 2022, Starlink consists of over 3,000 mass-produced small satellites in low Earth orbit (LEO),[5] which communicate with designated ground transceivers. Starlink provides internet access to over 500,000 subscribers as of June 2022.[6]

    The SpaceX satellite development facility in Redmond, Washington houses the Starlink research, development, manufacturing, and orbit control teams. The cost of the decade-long project to design, build, and deploy the constellation was estimated by SpaceX in May 2018 to be at least US$10 billion.[7] In February 2017, documents indicated that SpaceX expects more than $30 billion in revenue by 2025 from its satellite constellation, while revenues from its launch business were expected to reach $5 billion in the same year.[8][9]

    On 15 October 2019, the United States Federal Communications Commission (FCC) submitted filings to the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) on SpaceX's behalf to arrange spectrum for 30,000 additional Starlink satellites to supplement the 12,000 Starlink satellites already approved by the FCC.[10]

    Astronomers have raised concerns about the constellations' effect on ground-based astronomy and how the satellites will add to an already congested orbital environment.[11][12] SpaceX has attempted to mitigate astronomy concerns by implementing several upgrades to Starlink satellites aimed at reducing their brightness during operation.[13] The satellites are equipped with krypton-fueled Hall thrusters which allow them to de-orbit at the end of their life. Additionally, the satellites are designed to autonomously avoid collisions based on uplinked tracking data.[14]

    Contents

    1 History 1.1 Background

    1.2 Development Phase (2015–2020)

    1.3 Commercial Service (2021- )

    2 Services

    2.1 Satellite internet

    2.2 Satellite cellular service

    2.3 Military satellites

    2.4 Military communications

    2.4.1 Use in Ukraine

    3 Availability and regulatory approval by country

    4 Technology

    4.1 Satellite hardware

    4.2 User terminals 4.3 Ground stations

    4.4 Satellite revisions

    5 Launches

    5.1 Constellation design and status

    6 Impact on astronomy

    7 Increased risk of satellite collision

    8 Competition and market effects

    9 Similar or competitive systems

    10 See also 11 References 12 External links

    History[edit]

    Background[edit]

    Constellations of low Earth orbit satellites were first conceptualized in the mid-1980s as part of the Strategic Defense Initiative, where weapons were to be staged in orbit to intercept ballistic missiles on short notice. The potential for low-latency communication was also recognized and development offshoots in the 1990s led to numerous commercial megaconstellations using around 100 satellites such as Celestri, Teledesic, Iridium, and Globalstar. However all entities entered bankruptcy by the dot-com bubble burst, due in part to excessive launch costs at the time.[15][16]

    In June 2004, the newly formed company SpaceX acquired a stake in Surrey Satellite Technology (SSTL) as part of a “shared strategic vision”.[17] SSTL was at that time working to extend the Internet into space.[18] However, SpaceX's stake was eventually sold back to EADS Astrium in 2008 after the company became more focused on navigation and Earth observation.[19]

    In early 2014, Elon Musk and Greg Wyler were reportedly working together planning a constellation of around 700 satellites called WorldVu, which would be over 10 times the size of the then largest Iridium satellite constellation.[20] However, these discussions broke down by June 2014, and SpaceX instead filed an ITU application via the Norway telecom regulator under the name STEAM.[21] SpaceX confirmed the connection in the 2016 application to license Starlink with the FCC.[22] SpaceX trademarked the name for their satellite broadband network;[23] the name was inspired by the book .[24]

    منبع مطلب : en.wikipedia.org

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